Science, Vol.283, No.5404, 950-954, 1999
Climate oscillations - Genesis and evolution of the 1997-98 El Nino
The 1997-98 El Nino was, by some measures, the strongest on record, with major climatic impacts felt around the world. A newly completed tropical Pacific atmosphere-ocean sphere-ocean observing system documented this El Nino from its rapid onset to its sudden demise in greater detail than was ever before possible. The unprecedented measurements challenge existing theories about El Nino-related climate swings and suggest why climate forecast models underpredicted the strength of the El Nino before its onset.