Polymer Engineering and Science, Vol.35, No.4, 365-383, 1995
Solidification of Thermoviscoelastic Melts .2. Effects of Processing Conditions on Shrinkage and Residual-Stresses
The solidification of a molten layer of thermoplastic between cooled parallel plates is used to model the mechanics of part shrinkage and the buildup of residual stresses in the injection-molding process. Flow effects are neglected, and a thermorheologically simple thermoviscoelastic material model is assumed. The model allows material to be added to fill the space created by the pressure applied during solidification, so that this model can be used to assess packing-pressure effects in injection molding. Parametric results are presented on the effects of the mold and melt temperatures, the part thickness, and the packing pressure-the pressure applied during solidification to counteract the effects of volumetric shrinkage of the thermoplastic-on the in-plane and through-thickness shrinkages, and on residual stresses in plaque-like geometries. The packing pressure is shown to have a significant effect on part shrinkage, but a smaller effect on residual stresses. Packing pressure applied later in the solidification cycle has a larger effect. Mold and melt temperatures are shown to have a much smaller effect. The processing parameters appear to affect the through-thickness shrinkage more than the in-plane shrinkage. While the results are presented in terms of normalized variables based on the properties of bisphenol-A polycarbonate, they can be interpreted for other amorphous thermoplastics such as modified polyphenylene oxide, polyetherimide, and acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene.