Catalysis Today, Vol.369, 158-166, 2021
Fischer-Tropsch synthesis to lower alpha-olefins over cobalt-based catalysts: Dependence of the promotional effect of promoter on supports
Promoters, such as Na and Mn, play an important role in governing the active phase and catalytic performance of cobalt-based FTS catalyst. In this work, the dependence of the promotional effect of promoters on supports has been investigated by using the carbon and silica supported cobalt-based catalysts in the presence of Na, Mn, and both Na and Mn promoters, respectively. The characterization results of H2-TPR, CO-TPD and XRD profiles together with the FTS performances demonstrate the strong dependence of the promotional effect of promoter on the type of support used. The carbon support, which shows weak cobalt-support interaction, facilitates the manifestation of the effect of promoter. In detail, Mn can promote the formation of Co2C sites at the conditions of 260 C, 0.5 MPa and lower H2/CO ratio, resulting from the promoted CO adsorption and subsequent dissociation. Thus, the suppressed adsorption of H2 and the promoted surface dissociative C* concentration enhances the selectivities to lower olefins (C2=-C4=) and C5+ with a decrease in methane selectivity. Interestingly, the further addition of Na promoter shows synergistic effect of Na and Mn promoter on remarkably increasing selectivity to lower olefins due to the obviously suppressed chain growth. This synergistic effect could be observed only at the weak cobalt-carbon interaction with a more obvious effect at lower H2/CO ratio in feed gas that favors the increase of Co2C sites with mainly exposed facets of (111) and (020). The presence of (020) facet might be more crucial to enhance the formation of lower olefins. However, over silica support with strong cobalt-silica interaction, the promotional effect of Mn is obviously suppressed, which leads to only CoO and metallic Co sites in the FTS reaction and much weaker impact on product selectivity. The further addition of Na into Mn-promoted cobalt catalysts shows similar effect as Na promoter alone in the product selectivity where the chain growth is highly promoted to remarkably suppress methane selectivity and enhance selectivity to C5+ rather than desired lower olefins. In contrast to carbon support, the strong cobalt-silica interaction leads to less promotional formation of CO2 via the Boudouard reaction (2CO*-> C* + CO2) due to the increased non-dissociative adsorption of CO.