Biotechnology Letters, Vol.43, No.7, 1357-1369, 2021
MiR-103/miR-107 inhibits enterovirus 71 replication and facilitates type I interferon response by regulating SOCS3/STAT3 pathway
Background Enterovirus71 (EV71), the major cause of hand, foot, and-mouth disease (HFMD), has increasingly become a public health challenge. Type I interferons (IFNs) can regulate innate and adaptive immune responses to pathogens. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play regulatory roles in host innate immune responses to viral infections. However, the roles of miR-103 and miR-107 in EV71 infection remain unclear. Methods Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was employed to determine the expression of miR-103, miR-107, suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3), VP1, IFN-alpha, and IFN-beta. Virus titers were measured by 50% tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50) assay. Western blot assay was conducted to detect the protein levels of VP1, IFN-alpha, IFN-beta, SOCS3, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), and phospho-STAT3 (p-STAT3). Immunofluorescence assay was used to detect the protein level of VP1. The concentrations of IFN-alpha and IFN-beta were examined by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The interaction between SOCS3 and miR-103/miR-107 was predicted by starBase and verified by dual-luciferase reporter assay and RNA pull-down assay. Results MiR-103 and miR-107 were downregulated and SOCS3 was upregulated in serum from patients with EV71 and EV71-infected cells. Overexpression of miR-103 and miR-107 repressed EV71 replication by inhibiting EV71 titers and VP1 expression. Moreover, upregulation of miR-103 and miR-107 enhanced EV71-triggered the production of type I IFNs. In addition, miR-103 and miR-107 directly targeted SOCS3, and SOCS3 upregulation reversed the effects of miR-103 and miR-107 on EV71 replication and type I IFN response. Importantly, miR-103 and miR-107 increased STAT3 phosphorylation by targeting SOCS3 after EV71 infection. Conclusion MiR-103 and miR-107 suppressed EV71 replication and increased the production of type I IFNs by regulating SOCS3/STAT3 pathway, which might provide a novel strategy for developing effective antiviral therapy.