Biomacromolecules, Vol.22, No.7, 3069-3083, 2021
Control Release of Adenosine Potentiate Osteogenic Differentiation within a Bone Integrative EGCG-g-NOCC/Collagen Composite Scaffold toward Guided Bone Regeneration in a Critical-Sized Calvarial Defect
The regeneration of critical-sized bone defects with biomimetic scaffolds remains clinically challenging due to avascular necrosis, chronic inflammation, and altered osteogenic activity. Two confounding mechanisms, efficacy manipulation, and temporal regulation dictate the scaffold's bone regenerative ability. Equally critical is the priming of the mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) toward lineage-specific differentiation into bone-forming osteoblast, which particularly depends on varied mechanochemical and biological cues during bone tissue regeneration. This study sought to design and develop an optimized osteogenic scaffold, adenosine/epigallocatechin gallate-N,O-carboxymethyl chitosan/ collagen type I (AD/EGCG-g-NOCC@clgn I), having osteoinductive components toward swift bone regeneration in a calvarial defect BALB/c mice model. The ex vivo findings distinctly establish the pro-osteogenic potential of adenosine and EGCG, stimulating MSCs toward osteoblast differentiation with significantly increased expression of alkaline phosphatase, calcium deposits, and enhanced osteocalcin expression. Moreover, the 3D matrix recapitulates extracellular matrix (ECM) properties, provides a favorable microenvironment, structural support against mechanical stress, and acts as a reservoir for sustained release of osteoinductive molecules for cell differentiation, proliferation, and migration during matrix osteointegration observed. Evidence from in vivo experiments, micro-CT analyses, histology, and histomorphometry signify accelerated osteogenesis both qualitatively and quantitatively: effectual bone union with enhanced bone formation and new ossified tissue in 4 mm sized defects. Our results suggest that the optimized scaffold serves as an adjuvant to guide bone tissue regeneration in critical-sized calvarial defects with promising therapeutic efficacy.