Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, Vol.105, No.12, 5087-5101, 2021
Distinct bacterial communities in the environmental water, sediment and intestine between two crayfish-plant coculture ecosystems
Microorganisms are an important part of productivity, water quality, and biogeochemical cycles in an aquaculture ecosystems and play a key role in determining the growth and fitness of aquaculture animals. Coculture ecosystems are widely applied with great significance in agricultural production worldwide. The crayfish-rice coculture ecosystem (CRCE) and crayfish-waterweed coculture ecosystem (CWCE) are two high-profile artificial ecosystems for crayfish culture. However, the bacterial communities of the environmental water, sediment, and intestine in the CRCE and CWCE remain elusive. In this study, we investigated the diversity, composition, and function of bacterial communities in water, sediment, and intestine samples from the CRCE to CWCE. The physicochemical factors of water [such as ORP (oxidation-reduction potential), TC (total carbon), TOC (total oxygen carbon), and NO3--N] and sediment [such as TC, TOC, TN (total nitrogen), and TP (total phosphate)] were significantly different in the CRCE and CWCE. The abundances of Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, Cyanobacteria, Chlorobi, Chloroflexi, and Firmicutes were significantly different in the water bacterial communities of the CRCE and CWCE. The abundance of Vibrio in the crayfish intestine was higher in the CRCE than in the CWCE. The most abundant phyla in the CRCE and CWCE sediment were Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. The abundances of genes involved in transporters and ABC transporters were different in water of CRCE and CWCE. The abundances of genes involved in oxidative phosphorylation were significantly higher in the crayfish intestine of the CRCE than in that of the CWCE. Furthermore, the functional genes associated with carbon metabolism were significantly more abundant in the sediment of the CRCE than in that of the CWCE. Spearman correlation analysis and redundancy analysis (RDA) showed that the bacterial communities of the water and sediment in the CRCE and CWCE were correlated with environmental factors (pH, total carbon (TC), total oxygen carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP)). Our findings showed that the composition, diversity and function of the bacterial communities were distinct in the environmental water, sediment, and intestine of the CRCE and CWCE crayfish coculture ecosystems due to their different ecological patterns. These results can help guide healthy farming practices and deepen the understanding of bacterial communities in crayfish-plant coculture ecosystems from the perspective of bacterial ecology.