Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, Vol.105, No.18, 7035-7050, 2021
Responses of soil bacterial and fungal communities to the long-term monoculture of grapevine
Soil microorganisms are essential for the long-term sustainability of agricultural ecosystems. However, continuous grapevine replanting can disrupt the stability of soil microbial communities. We investigated the bacterial and fungal abundance, diversity, and community composition in rhizosphere soils with continuous grapevine replanting for 5, 6, 7 (Y5, Y6, and Y7; short-term), and 20 (Y20; long-term) years with high-throughput sequencing. Results showed that diversities and abundances of bacterial and fungal communities in Y20 were significantly lower than in other samples. The bacterial and fungal community compositions were markedly affected by the replanting time and planting year. After short-term grapevine replanting, relative abundances of potential beneficial bacteria and harmful fungi in rhizosphere soils were higher compared to long-term planting. Bacterial and fungal communities were significantly correlated with available nitrogen (AN), available phosphorus, available potassium (AK), and pH. AK and AN were the primary soil factors related to the shift of bacterial and fungal communities. Bacterial and fungal co-occurrence patterns were remarkably affected by replanting time, showing that fallow land harbored co-occurrence networks more complex than those in other groups, with the Y20 group showing the lowest complexity. Then, we isolated the dominant fungi in grapevine rhizosphere soil after continuous replanting and verified the harmful effects of three candidate strains through pot experiments. The results showed that 12 days post-treating the soil with fungal spore suspensions significantly inhibited grapevine seedlings' growth, whereas Fusarium solani inhibited plant growth. Overall, we showed that F. solani might be a potentially harmful fungus related to grapevine replant diseases.