Transport in Porous Media, Vol.136, No.3, 791-812, 2021
Onset of Convection in Two-Dimensional Porous Cavities with Open and Conducting Boundaries
The onset of thermal convection in two-dimensional porous cavities heated from below is studied theoretically. An open (constant-pressure) boundary is assumed, with zero perturbation temperature (thermally conducting). The resulting eigenvalue problem is a full fourth-order problem without degeneracies. Numerical results are presented for rectangular and elliptical cavities, with the circle as a special case. The analytical solution for an upright rectangle confirms the numerical results. Streamlines penetrating the open cavities are plotted, together with the isotherms for the associated closed thermal cells. Isobars forming pressure cells are depicted for the perturbation pressure. The critical Rayleigh number is calculated as a function of geometric parameters, including the tilt angle of the rectangle and ellipse. An improved physical scaling of the Darcy-Benard problem is suggested. Its significance is indicated by the ratio of maximal vertical velocity to maximal temperature perturbation.