Powder Technology, Vol.384, 267-275, 2021
Comparison of surface energy and adhesion energy of surface-treated particles
The mineral industry uses tremendous amounts of water every year in the processing of ores. Sustainable practices associated with the processing of ores are, therefore, of critical importance. The project described herein is the first step toward producing a dry, particle-separation process based upon control and exploitation of adhesive forces. In this research, the goal is to determine the surface energy of particles, and further, whether the solid surface energy can be used to understand the adhesion between these particles and surface-modified substrates. Glass spheres were chosen to represent silicate minerals, the most abundant type of minerals found in mineral deposits. The solid surface energy was found by using contact angle measurements and by applying the van Oss-Good-Chaudhury (VOGC) method. The VOGC method utilizes three-liquid triads to determine the Lifshitzvan der Waals, Lewis acid and Lewis base surface energy components. Surface energies from plasma-cleaned glass were between 40.2 and 60.2 mJ/m(2); for the same glass with a hydrophobic chemical surface treatment, trichloro(octadecyl)silane (TCOD), the surface energy was between 20.8 and 20.9 mJ/m(2); and for the glass with a hydrophilic chemical surface treatment (n(1)-(3-trimethoxysilylpropyl) diethylenetriamine (TMPA)) the surface energy was between 46.3 and 61.6 mJ/m(2). The particle-substrate adhesion was also measured using a mechanical impact tester. Glass disks and beads were used, cleaned and surface treated with TCOD and TMPA. A custom horizontal impact tester was designed and used to measure the adhesion force between the glass spheres and a glass disk substrate. Impact of the disk/particle puck causes particle removal as tensile forces act on the particles. The tensile detachment force and adhesive force are equal at a critical particle size. Johnson Kendall-Roberts (JKR) theory was used to determine the interfacial energy between the particles and the surface. The average interfacial energy of plasma cleaned glass, glass treated with TCOD and with TMPA were 44.8 mJ/m2, 21.6 mJ/m(2), and 40.1 mJ/m(2), respectively. These values are in good agreement with the literature values and with the interfacial energy determined using the VOGC method described above, demonstrating that two approaches compare favorably, despite the dramatically different methods (molecular vs mechanical) utilized. (C) 2021 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.