Langmuir, Vol.36, No.44, 13227-13235, 2020
Novel Type of Water-Soluble Photosensitizer from Trichoderma reesei for Photodynamic Inactivation of Gram-Positive Bacteria
Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (APDT) is a promising alternative to traditional antibiotics for the treatment of bacterial infections, which inactivates a broad spectrum of bacteria. However, many traditional photosensitizers (PSs) are hydrophobic with poor water solubility and easy aggregation. On the other hand, some light sources such as ultraviolet (UV) have poor penetration and high cytotoxicity. Both issues lead to undesired photodynamic therapy efficacy. To overcome these issues, we develop a novel water-soluble natural PS (sorbicillinoids) obtained by microbial fermentation using recombinant filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei. Sorbicillinoids could effectively generate singlet oxygen (O-1(2)) under UV light irradiation and ultimately display photoinactivation activity on Gram-positive bacteria including Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, and Micrococcus luteus but not Gram-negative ones such as Escherichia coli and Proteus vulgaris. Sorbicillinoids were found to enter S. aureus but not E. coli. S. aureus treated with sorbicillinoids and UV light displayed high levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), notable DNA photocleavage, and compromised cell semipermeability without overt cell membrane disruption, none of which was found in the treated E. coli. All these contribute to the sorbicillinoid-based photoinactivation of Gram-positive bacteria. Moreover, the dark toxicity and phototoxicity on mammalian cells or hemolysis activity of sorbicillinoids is negligible, showing its excellent biocompatibility. This study expands the utilization of UV light for surface sterilization to disinfection in solution. Therefore, sorbicillinoids, a type of secondary metabolite from fungus, have a promising future as a new PS for APDT using a nontoxic dose of UV irradiation.