Langmuir, Vol.37, No.10, 3086-3092, 2021
Food-Grade Nanoemulsions for the Effective Delivery of beta-Carotene
Utilization of beta-carotene in functional food products is limited due to chemical instability, lower water-solubility, and higher melting point. The present research was designed to formulate a nanoemulsion system for the effective delivery of beta-carotene. beta-Carotene was successfully incorporated into nanoemulsions using the ultrasonication method. During 60 days of storage, the droplet size of beta-carotene-containing nanoemulsions varied from 112.36 to 133.9 nm at 4 degrees C and from 112.36 to 147.1 nm at 25 degrees C. The oxidation stability of olive oil was remarkably increased when incorporated into nanoemulsions. beta-Carotene nanoemulsions remained stable under varying ionic strengths (50-400 mM), pH values (2-8), and freeze-thaw cycles (four). The values of turbidity and total color difference increased over time and at a higher temperature. Degradation of beta-carotene was substantially slower in nanoemulsions, and the addition of antioxidants significantly increased the retention of beta-carotene in nanoemulsions. These findings suggest that the ultrasonic homogenization method has potential for the preparation of beta-carotene nanoemulsions with desirable properties. These nanoemulsions can be effectively used for the incorporation of beta-carotene in the food and beverage industry.