Journal of Physical Chemistry B, Vol.124, No.52, 11870-11881, 2020
Long-Term Electrodeposition under a Uniform Parallel Magnetic Field. 2. Flow-Mode Transition from Laminar MHD Flow to Convection Cells with Two-Dimensional (2D) Nucleation
Following the analysis of the self-organization of two-dimensional (2D) nuclei in Part 1, the flow-mode transition from laminar magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) flow to convection cells accompanied by 2D nucleation under a uniform parallel magnetic field was theoretically examined using the statistical mechanics of nonequilibrium fluctuation. As a result, it was clarified that secondary nodules of 2D nuclei develop with multiple nucleations during the transition, forming a one-upon-another structure. Then, the evolution of the convection cells as well as the secondary nodules requires unstable growth of the asymmetrical fluctuations by the specific adsorption of an ion. As predicted by the theory, the electrolytic current in copper deposition with specific adsorption of hydrogen ions under a parallel magnetic field developed with time, resulting in a nonlinear steplike curve in a 1200 s deposition time.