Journal of Materials Science, Vol.56, No.4, 2944-2960, 2021
Carbonization of phloroglucinol promoted by heteropoly acids
Oxygen-containing carbon materials such as graphene oxide have been extensively studied because of their high dispersibility. However, the oxygen-containing functional groups in most carbon materials are not controlled. Uncontrollability of the synthesis is also one of factors that prevent industrialization. Carbon materials derived from phloroglucinol (PG), which show high solubility/dispersibility and controllability of functional groups, have been developed recently by our group. The high performance of carbonized PG originates from the thermally stable backbone structure of the benzene ring with hydroxy groups of PG. However, the degree of carbonization was low. In this study, five heteropoly acids (HPAs), which are thermally stable homogeneous strong acid catalysts, were used to promote carbonization of PG without losing the controllability of functional groups and the dispersibility. HPAs promoted etherification of hydroxy groups followed by C=C coupling reactions (furan cyclization) at 523 K. Furthermore, it was confirmed that particularly furan structures, which contribute to solubility/dispersibility in solvents, and thermal stability in air, could be maintained at 673 K as suggested by spectroscopies and thermogravimetric-differential thermal analysis. Among five HPAs, phosphotungstic acid worked as the excellent catalyst to promote carbonization of PG containing furan structures, exhibiting high solubility/dispersibility and high thermal stability in air. [GRAPHICS] .