Journal of Materials Science, Vol.56, No.16, 9728-9740, 2021
Poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene)/cobalt ferrite composite films with a self-biased magnetoelectric effect for flexible AC magnetic sensors
With the rapid development of artificial intelligence and wearable devices, flexible magnetic sensors have attracted much attention in recent years. In this work, large self-biased 0-3 type poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene)/cobalt ferrite (P(VDF-TrFE)/CoFe2O4) flexible magnetoelectric (ME) composite films are proposed for the development of AC magnetic sensors. P(VDF-TrFE)/CoFe2O4 composite films with CoFe2O4 nanoparticle mass contents from 5 to 30% are successfully fabricated through the solution casting method. The results show that the nanoparticles are homogeneously dispersed in the P(VDF-TrFE) matrix, and the composite films have both excellent ferroelectric and ferromagnetic properties. The P(VDF-TrFE)/CoFe2O4 composite films all exhibit a large ME effect. The ME coefficient reaches 47.1 mV center dot cm(-1)center dot Oe(-1) for the film with a CoFe2O4 nanoparticle mass content of 20% at resonance frequency. Moreover, the composite films have a large self-biased ME effect with a maximum value of 20.4 mV center dot cm(-1)center dot Oe(-1), which is mainly due to the high remnant magnetization of CoFe2O4 nanoparticles. To evaluate the composite films for application in magnetic sensors, the response of the ME output voltage to an AC magnetic field without a bias DC magnetic field was measured. The good linear correlation coefficient, sensitivity and repeatability indicate that the proposed 0-3 type P(VDF-TrFE)/CoFe2O4 composite film is a promising material for flexible AC magnetic sensors.