Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, Vol.585, 583-595, 2021
Ionic strength controls long-term cell-surface interactions - A QCM-D study of S. cerevisiae adhesion, retention and detachment
Understanding microbial adhesion and retention is crucial for controlling many processes, including biofilm formation, antimicrobial therapy as well as cell sorting and cell detection platforms. Cell detachment is inextricably linked to cell adhesion and retention and plays an important part in the mechanisms involved in these processes. Physico-chemical and biological forces play a crucial role in microbial adhesion interactions and altering the medium ionic strength offers a potential means for modulating these interactions. Real-time studies on the effect of ionic strength on microbial adhesion are often limited to short-term bacterial adhesion. Therefore, there is a need, not only for long-term bacterial adhesion studies, but also for similar studies focusing on eukaryotic microbes, such as yeast. Hereby, we monitored, in real-time, S. cerevisiae adhesion on gold and silica as examples of surfaces with different surface charge properties to disclose long-term adhesion, retention and detachment as a function of ionic strength using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring. Our results show that short and long-term cell adhesion levels in terms of mass-loading increase with increasing ionic strength, while cells dispersed in a medium of higher ionic strength experience longer retention and detachment times. The positive correlation between the cell zeta potential and ionic strength suggests that zeta potential plays a role on cell retention and detachment. These trends are similar for measurements on silica and gold, with shorter retention and detachment times for silica due to strong short-range repulsions originating from a high electron-donicity. Furthermore, the results are comparable with measurements in standard yeast culture medium, implying that the overall effect of ionic strength applies for cells in nutrient-rich and nutrient-deficient media. (C) 2020 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.