Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering, Vol.129, No.3, 333-347, 2020
Metabolomics analyses of the combined effects of lactic acid bacteria and Penicillium camemberti on the generation of volatile compounds in model mold-surface-ripened cheeses
The flavor of white mold cheese is attributed to the formation of aroma compounds associated with complex effects of bacteria and fungi, resulting in difficulties in flavor design for new cheeses. This study aimed to identify the microbial basis of flavor by identifying the combined effects of LD type lactic acid bacteria (LAB) starters and Penicillium camemberti on the generation of metabolites during the ripening process. Metabolomics analyses were performed on three model cheeses: normal cheese, no-mold cheese with only LAB, and no-LAB cheese with only white mold. Aroma compounds and their potential precursors were analyzed using headspace solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and solvent extraction-GC/MS, respectively. Measurements during ripening and multivariate analyses on the data revealed the relationship between the microorganisms and metabolic activities, which were classified into four groups: metabolites generated by LAB and degraded by P. camemberti; metabolites generated by P. camemberti and degraded or inhibited by LAB; metabolites generated by P. camemberti and enhanced by LAB; and metabolites exhibiting no interaction between P. camemberti and LAB. The characteristic compounds in LAB and white mold cheeses were mainly products of sugar and protein metabolism, respectively. The involvement of fatty acids, methyl ketones, and secondary alcohol metabolic pathways in the late-ripening stage was confirmed, and the profiles of volatile metabolites contributing to the characteristic aroma of the white mold cheese in the fermentation process were also confirmed. (C) 2019, The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. All rights reserved.