International Journal of Energy Research, Vol.44, No.15, 12583-12591, 2020
Thermal behavior of lithium batteries used in electric vehicles using phase change materials
Electric vehicles equipped with lithium-ion batteries face a huge challenge, and the fact that battery life is very much affected by the temperature conditions of their operating environment, the heat reduces battery life cycle and time and increases the likelihood of thermal degradation and explosion. This problem has forced engineers to cool the battery. The methods used to cool the battery includes a cool water method (passing water or a dielectric fluid from the battery pack), cooling air (blowing air into the battery compartment by the fan), using a refrigeration system (such as cooling screens), and the use of phase-change material (PCM). In this research after reviewing and referring to valid authorities, it was found that PCMs are superior to all three other cooling systems because the air-conditioning system is not very desirable due to the high-temperature gradient between the battery cells. Also, cooling and refrigeration systems with refrigerant gases will also cost a very high cost on the electric car. The results of the studies showed that the cooling the battery using the PCM creates a similar temperature profile between the batteries in the battery pack, the temperature gradient is much smaller than the air cooler and cool water, and the final cost will be much lower. Also, it performs more efficiently in high-speed road dynamics and increases the battery life of an electric car or electric hybrid.
Keywords:electric vehicles;lithium-ion batteries;phase-change materials (PCMs);thermal energy storage (TES)