International Journal of Energy Research, Vol.45, No.4, 6395-6404, 2021
Pencil-traced-graphite on cellulose: A rapid and solvent-less approach for solar steam generation
Solar steam generation has proven to be a sustainable method to handle water shortage. Various materials for solar steam generation have been introduced in the past few years. However, the utilization of tedious and complicated synthesis to generate a photoactive layer is a matter of concern in the fabrication solar steam generation devices. Thus, improved methods toward cost-effectiveness by exploring economical materials with simple manufacturing process are urgently and essentially needed. In this study, we first report on manufacturing hybrid membranes using commercially accessible materials, that is, cellulose paper and pencil graphite. The proposed method is to trace and coat a cellulose paper directly with a pencil without the use of solvents and chemicals, and it is possible to create an ecofriendly photoactive layer without a complicated process. The formed pencil graphite-traced membranes were successfully utilized in solar steam generation and showed excellent steam generation rate of 4.32 kg/m(2)h which is almost 3.5 times more than that of pristine membrane at solar intensity of 3 Sun. The developed method could be widely utilized in the field of solar steam generation, since it is very facile and simple, and can be integrated to other commonly used materials for solar steam generation such as fabric and wood. In addition, on-site production is possible, so it has a potential to be utilized in remote and resource-limited areas for steam generation.