Current Microbiology, Vol.77, No.12, 4114-4128, 2020
Study on the Diversity and Function of Gut Microbiota in Pigs Following Long-Term Antibiotic and Antibiotic-Free Breeding
In-feed antibiotics can influence intestinal microbial structures in born and early-life within a period. However, the impact of antibiotics on gut microbiota during long-term antibiotic-free and antibiotic breeding at porcine-fattening phase have not been studied extensively so far. Here, we conducted a systematic 16S rRNA gene sequencing-based study combined with metagenomic analysis to reveal the variation of diversity and function of gut microbiota between antibiotic-free (treatment group, TG) and antibiotic (a mixture of flavomycin and enramycin, control group, CG) breeding at various stages of fattening pigs. In the present study, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria phyla were the core microbiomes in fattening pig gut microbiota. The ratio between Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes significantly increased with age (P = 0.03). TG showed significantly higher relative abundance of Proteobacteria and Fibrobacteres phyla than CG. The microbial community can be divided into several notably clustered blocks based on cooperative and competitive correlations. These blocks centered on numerous special genera, which play essential roles in body development and disease prevention. TG showed obviously higher proportions of metabolic pathways related to metabolism, endocrine system, nervous system and excretory system, but pathways included carbohydrate metabolism and immune system diseases in CG. Collectively, this study has comprehensively demonstrated microbial diversities, differences and correlations among gut microbiota, microbial metabolism and gene functions during long-term antibiotic-free breeding. This work provides a novel resource and information with positive implications for pig husbandry production and disease prevention.