Combustion and Flame, Vol.223, 202-215, 2021
Effect of sidewall on the flame extension characteristics beneath a ceiling induced by carriage fire in a channel
Laboratory tests were firstly conducted in a reduced scale channel to investigate the conditions for flame ejections when the carriage was at the centre of the channel. The ejected flames were recorded by two cameras and the temperature inside the enclosure and on the ceiling were measured. The lower critical heat release rate (HRR) which would result in intermittent flame ejection and upper critical HRR which would lead to continuous external flame were analysed with regards to their variations with the ventilation factor. Correlations for the longitudinal and transverse flame extension lengths and flame extension area beneath the ceiling were proposed. Subsequently further experimental investigations were conducted to study the effect of sidewall constraint on flame extension by changing the position of the carriage along the transverse direction to vary the distance between the sidewall and the carriage opening, which was also systematically varied. With the decrease of the sidewall-to-opening distance, the longitudinal flame extension length was found to increase whereas the transverse flame extension length decreased. The changes are most significant when sidewall-to-opening distance was relatively small. These trends are different from those observed in previous wall-attached fires or corner fires in channels, where the flame extension length beneath the ceiling firstly increased with the decrease of sidewall-source distance, and then decreased slightly when the fire source was attached to the wall. New correlations were proposed to account for the effect of sidewall-to-opening distance for longitudinal and transverse flame extension lengths under the ceiling. They captured well the measurements for all the present cases and some published cases not used in their derivation, demonstrating the potential for fire safety engineering applications. (C) 2020 The Combustion Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.