Chemical Engineering Research & Design, Vol.163, 169-181, 2020
Numerical analysis of dilute gas-solid flows in a horizontal pipe and a 90 degrees bend coupled with a newly developed drag model
The influence of particle concentration on the drag force of a particle deserves attention when using the Lagrangian Particle Tracking methods for the prediction of industrial type gas-solid flows. The Lagrangian approach is best suited to applications where the solids volume fraction is low, and the effect of particle concentration can be ignored. In the present work, a 3D time dependent numerical analysis is performed to study the effect of Lagrangian model improvements to replicate experimental studies of straight horizontal pipe flow and flow through a 90 horizontal-to-vertical bend. The present predictions are compared with published experimental data of Tsuji and Morikawa (1982), and Yernaz (1994 Special attention is paid to influence of particle mass-flow rates and conveying velocity on the particle motion within the system. This study used a CFX-4 package, where the ability to modify the code was necessary to include particle model improvements. These improvements included implementing a newly drag force model developed as a part of this research work. Particle wall collision and particle-particle collision models developed by Sommerfeld (1992), and Sommerfeld (2001) are also implemented in the CFD model. The standard k-epsilon dispersed turbulence model was utilized as the predictions for the gas phase only gave similar predicted axial velocity compared to the more computationally demanding Reynolds stress model. The results showed that the inclusion of the various improvements lead to reasonable predicted particle velocities in both the upper and lower regions of the straight horizontal pipe which denote the dilute and dense regions respectively. It was also found that the inclusion of the rough-wall particle wall collision model decreases the axial particle velocity in the lower region where the bulk of the particle wall collisions occur. While the inclusion of the particle collision models tends to disperse the particles away from the lower region resulting in a less dense lower section and a distinctly more homogenous particle distribution compared with the standard model predictions. Further, the increase in particle concentration leads to a reduction in axial velocity due to a loss of momentum through particle-wall and particle-particle collisions. Finally, the improved CFD model best predicted both the reduction and increase in the particle velocities in the different regions. (C) 2020 Institution of Chemical Engineers. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.