Catalysis Today, Vol.358, 3-29, 2020
Conversion of CO2 to C-1 chemicals: Catalyst design, kinetics and mechanism aspects of the reactions
The conversion of carbon dioxide, an abundant and inexpensive feedstock to valuable chemicals is a contemporary challenge with multiple facets. There is a need to elucidate the process of utilizing CO2 to gain a fundamental understanding to overcome the challenges. This review focuses on the reactions converting CO2 to C-1 valuable chemicals via reforming and hydrogenation reactions to produce syngas, methane, and methanol. Prior art and recent trends in the development of novel catalysts are highlighted with regards to kinetic and mechanistic aspects of the reactions. Several highly emerging characterization techniques such as operando XAS and FTIR and DFT simulation are used to study state of catalyst surface and reaction intermediates involved in the reactions. Furthermore, parameters affecting the selectivity towards desired products and methods to improve the performance are explained in greater details. The technical challenges of CO2 conversion into useful fuels/chemicals are summarized comprehensively. Finally, the future outlook and direction for the development of catalyst are provided to overcome the limitations and achieve higher utilization of CO2 to eradicate the problems associated with global warming.