Biotechnology Letters, Vol.43, No.3, 677-690, 2021
Role of c-di-GMP in improving stress resistance of alginate-chitosan microencapsulated Bacillus subtilis cells in simulated digestive fluids
Objectives Probiotics (Bacillus subtilis 04178) were entrapped in alginate-chitosan microcapsules by high-voltage electrostatic process. The encapsulation pattern was established as entrapped low density cells with culture (ELDCwc). The performance of ELDCwc cells was investigated against stress environments of simulated digestive fluids. Results After incubation in simulated gastric (pH 2.5) and intestinal fluids (4% bile salt) for 2 h, the survival rate of ELDCwc cells (18.19% and 27.54%) was significantly higher than that of the free cells (0.0000009% and 0.0005%). The reason why B. subtilis embedded in microcapsules can resist the stress environments was that the mass production of extracellular proteins and polysaccharides prompted B. subtilis to form cell aggregates. The production of extracellular proteins and polysaccharides were regulated by the concentration of c-di-GMP and the expression of ydaJKLMN operon, abbA, sinI, slrA, slrB, abrR and sinR. Conclusions c-di-GMP is important for the production of extracellular polymer substance to enhance probiotic viability in stress environments.