Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Vol.117, No.12, 3858-3875, 2020
Microparticles globally reprogramStreptomyces albustoward accelerated morphogenesis, streamlined carbon core metabolism, and enhanced production of the antituberculosis polyketide pamamycin
Streptomyces spp. are a rich source for natural products with recognized industrial value, explaining the high interest to improve and streamline the performance of in these microbes. Here, we studied the production of pamamycins, macrodiolide homologs with a high activity against multiresistant pathogenic microbes, using recombinantStreptomyces albusJ1074/R2. Talc particles (hydrous magnesium silicate, 3MgO center dot 4SiO(2)center dot H2O) of micrometer size, added to submerged cultures of the recombinant strain, tripled pamamycin production up to 50 mg/L. Furthermore, they strongly affected morphology, reduced the size of cell pellets formed by the filamentous microbe during the process up to sixfold, and shifted the pamamycin spectrum to larger derivatives. Integrated analysis of transcriptome and precursor (CoA thioester) supply of particle-enhanced and control cultures provided detailed insights into the underlying molecular changes. The microparticles affected the expression of 3,341 genes (56% of all genes), revealing a global and fundamental impact on metabolism. Morphology-associated genes, encoding major regulators such as SsgA, RelA, EshA, Factor C, as well as chaplins and rodlins, were found massively upregulated, indicating that the particles caused a substantially accelerated morphogenesis. In line, the pamamycin cluster was strongly upregulated (up to 1,024-fold). Furthermore, the microparticles perturbed genes encoding for CoA-ester metabolism, which were mainly activated. The altered expression resulted in changes in the availability of intracellular CoA-esters, the building blocks of pamamycin. Notably, the ratio between methylmalonyl CoA and malonyl-CoA was increased fourfold. Both metabolites compete for incorporation into pamamycin so that the altered availability explained the pronounced preference for larger derivatives in the microparticle-enhanced process. The novel insights into the behavior ofS. albusin response to talc appears of general relevance to further explore and upgrade the concept of microparticle enhanced cultivation, widely used for filamentous microbes.