Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Vol.117, No.12, 3639-3650, 2020
Evaluation of the radiation response and regenerative effects of mesenchymal stem cell-conditioned medium in an intestinal organoid system
Intestinal organoids have recently emerged as an in vitro model relevant to the gut system owing to their recapitulation of the native intestinal epithelium with crypt-villus architecture. However, it is unclear whether intestinal organoids reflect the physiology of the in vivo stress response. Here, we systemically investigated the radiation response in organoids and animal models using mesenchymal stem cell-conditioned medium (MSC-CM), which contains secreted paracrine factors. Irradiated organoids exhibited sequential induction of viability loss and regrowth after irradiation (within 12 days), similar to the response of the native intestinal epithelium. Notably, treatment with MSC-CM facilitated the reproliferation of intestinal stem cells (ISCs) and restoration of damaged crypt-villus structures in both models. Furthermore, Wnt/Notch signaling pathways were commonly upregulated by MSC-CM, but not radiation, and pharmacologically selective inhibition of Wnt or Notch signaling attenuated the enhanced recovery of irradiated organoids, with increases in ISCs, following MSC-CM treatment. Interestingly, the expression of Wnt4, Wnt7a, and active beta-catenin was increased, but not notch family members, in MSC-CM-treated organoid after irradiation. Treatment of recombinant mouse Wnt4 and Wnt7a after irradiation improved to some extent intestinal epithelial regeneration both in vitro and in vivo. Overall, these results suggested that intestinal organoids recapitulated the physiological stress response of the intestinal epithelium in vivo. Thus, our findings provided important insights into the physiology of intestinal organoids and may contribute to the development of strategies to enhance the functional maturation of engineered organoids.