Biomacromolecules, Vol.21, No.12, 4699-4708, 2020
Fabrication of Double-Network Hydrogels with Universal Adhesion and Superior Extensibility and Cytocompatibility by One-Pot Method
Hydrogels, which demand simultaneously tailorable mechanical properties and excellent biocompatibility, act as a promoting material for biomedical applications, e.g., tissue engineering scaffolds, wound dressing materials, and cartilage substitutes. Double-network hydrogels (DN hydrogels) have attracted widespread concerns due to their extraordinary mechanical strength and toughness, while traditional DN hydrogels are limited in terms of their biofunctionality. Based on the DN hydrogels composed of agar and acrylamide (AM), we incorporate vinylphosphoric acid (VPA) into the network to obtain agar/PAM/PVPA hydrogels with universal adhesion and superior cytocompatibility. Meanwhile, the agar/PAM/PVPA hydrogel maintains its high strength and toughness. It is noted that the elongation of the agar/PAM/PVPA hydrogel (molar ratio of VPA is 2%) is up to 3418.9 +/- 54.9%. The cell experiment also demonstrates that the addition of VPA in a proper concentration can promote cell adhesion and proliferation. Furthermore, the hydrogel has the potential to be used as 3D printing and injectable materials because of the thermoreversible sol-gel agar. The reported agar/PAM/PVPA hydrogel in this work with universal adhesion, excellent mechanical properties, and excellent cytocompatibility is able to be used for biomedical applications as scaffolds, wound dressing materials, or cartilage repair materials.