Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, Vol.529, No.4, 1061-1065, 2020
Identification of the essential extracellular aspartic acids conserved in human monocarboxylate transporters 1, 2, and 4
Human monocarboxylate transporters (hMCTs) 1-4 transport monocarboxylates, such as L-lactate and pyruvate, as well as H+ across the plasma membrane. hMCT1, 2, and 4 play important roles in energy balance, pH homeostasis. However, the molecular mechanism of these transporters, especially their pH dependency, remains unknown. The aim of this study was to identify the residues involved in the pH dependence of hMCT1, 2, and 4. Firstly, we focused on the effects of extracellular acids of hMCT1. L Lactate uptake assay and site-directed mutagenesis revealed that the aspartic acid of hMCT1 (hMCT1 D414) was an important residue conserved in MCT1, 2, and 4 (hMCT2 D398 and hMCT4 D379). Because the functional characteristic of hMCT2-mediated L-lactate transport has not been reported, we built a hMCT2-expressing system using Xenopus laevis oocytes. The transport activity of hMCT2 was enhanced by co-expression with embigin, an ancillary protein, and kinetic analysis of hMCT2-mediated L-lactate uptake revealed that the apparent Km value (0.32 +/- 0.02 mM) was lower than that mediated by hMCT1 and 4. Finally, we investigated the conserved aspartic acids of hMCT2 and 4, and revealed that these residues were essential for L-lactate transport. These findings suggested that the extracellular aspartic acids conserved in hMCT1, 2, and 4 played important roles in transport activity and pH dependency, and can function as a first step of substrate and H+ recognition and transport from the extracellular to the intracellular region. These findings contributed to enhance our understanding of the transport process of hMCT1, 2, and 4. (C) 2020 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.