Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, Vol.530, No.3, 588-596, 2020
KLHL4, a novel p53 target gene, inhibits cell proliferation by activating p21(WAF/CDKN1A)
KLHL4 is a member of the KLHL protein family, many of whom bind the Cul3 E3 ligase, and mediate the ubiquitination of interacting proteins. The KLHL4 gene, localized on the X chromosome, associates with a disorder known as X-linked cleft palate (CPX). However, the biological functions of KLHL4 are largely unknown. In this study, microarray analysis of HEK293A embryonic kidney cells, expressing ectopic p53, showed a 3-fold increase of KLHL4 mRNA. Moreover, both KLHL4 mRNA and protein expression were elevated by p53 or DNA damage, suggesting that KLHL4 might be a p53 target gene. We also found that KLHL4 activates transcription of p21(WAF/CDKN1A), a p53 target gene encoding a major negative regulator of the cell-cycle. KLHL4 interacted with p53 to increase its binding to p53 response element of the p21(WAF/CDKN1A) gene, resulting in transcriptional upregulation. Furthermore, we observed that KLHL4 can interact with the Cul3 ubiquitin ligase, to possibly play a role in ubiquitin-mediated proteasomal degradation, and Klhl4 knocked-out MEF mouse embryonic fibroblasts proliferated faster than WT MEF cells. These results suggest that KLHL4 upregulation by p53 may inhibit cell proliferation, by activating p21(WAF/CDKN1A). (C ) 2020 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.