Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, Vol.530, No.4, 699-705, 2020
The Ca2+-dependent pathway contributes to changes in the subcellular localization and extracellular release of interleukin-33
Interleukin-33 (IL-33) is a member of the IL-1 cytokine family and plays critical roles in facilitating type-2 immune responses. IL-33 is localized in the nucleus and released to the extracellular milieu during cell death, although the precise mechanisms underlying IL-33 mobilization remain unclear. Here, we found that nigericin, a toxin derived from Streptomyces hygroscopicus, promoted IL-33 translocation from the nucleus to the cytosol before extracellular release. This translocation was inhibited by chelating Ca2+ with EGTA or membrane protection by glycine treatment. Ca2+ ionophore A23187 stimulation caused IL-33 translocation to the cytoplasm but was not sufficient for extracellular release. However, IL-33 release was induced by detergent treatment, which indicates that membrane rupture is required for IL-33 release. The pore-forming pyroptosis executor gasdermin D was cleaved following nigericin stimulation, and overexpression of the cleaved gasdermin D-N-terminal fragment that forms the membrane pore sufficiently induced IL-33 release, which was blocked by EGTA and glycine. Together, these findings suggest that Ca2+-dependent signals and gasdermin D pore formation are required for robust IL-33 production. (c) 2020 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.