Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, Vol.533, No.1, 162-167, 2020
1,2-Dilinoleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine increases insulin sensitivity in palmitate-treated myotubes and induces lipolysis in adipocytes
Obesity causes the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Phosphatidylcholine (PPC) has been reported to increase hepatic insulin sensitivity and lipolysis in adipose tissue to resolve local obesity. In this study, we proposed 1,2-dilinoleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DLPC), the main active species of PPC, as an effective substance for the treatment of obesity-mediated disorders such as impaired fat metabolism and insulin resistance. Therefore, we investigated the potential lipolytic effects of DLPC on adipocytes and insulin signaling in muscle cells. In this study, DLPC-treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes showed enhanced tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) release. Suppression of TNF-alpha by short interfering RNA (siRNA) mitigated DLPC-induced lipolysis and apoptosis. DLPC treatment increased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR alpha) expression levels in C2C12 myocytes. siRNA-mediated sup- pression of PPAR alpha abrogated the suppressive effects of DLPC on palmitate-induced inflammation and insulin resistance. In conclusion, DLPC enhanced lipolysis and apoptosis via a TNF alpha-dependent pathway in adipocytes and attenuated palmitate-induced insulin resistance through PPAR alpha-mediated suppression of inflammation in myocytes. (C) 2020 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.