Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, Vol.533, No.4, 764-769, 2020
Effects of the autophagy modulators d-limonene and chloroquine on vimentin levels in SH-SY5Y cells
The molecular target and mechanism by which d-limonene induces LC3 lipidation and autophagosome formation remain elusive. Here, we report that this monoterpene rapidly enhances Ca2thorn levels in SHSY5Y cells; yet this effect does not lead to calpainor caspase-mediated proteolysis of a-spectrin, nor calpain activity is required for the established enhancement of LC3-II levels by d-limonene. However, dlimonene rapidly reduced vimentin levels, an unexpected effect also induced by the autophagy inhibitor chloroquine (CQ). The magnitude of vimentin reduction parallels accumulation of LC3-II caused by a brief incubation with d-limonene or CQ. For longer exposure (48 h), d-limonene does not reduce vimentin, nor it increases LC3-II levels; conversely, a clear reduction of vimentin along with a massive accumulation of LC3-II is evident in cells treated with CQ. Vimentin participates in organelle positioning and in other cellular processes that have linked this intermediate filament protein to various diseases, including cancer, inflammatory and autoimmune disorders, and to virus replication and internalization. Our findings suggest an inverse relationship between vimentin reduction and LC3-II accumulation, whose causal link needs to be examined. Further experiments are needed to dissect the role of vimentin reduction in the mechanisms through which CQ impairs fusion of autophagosome with lysosomes as well as in other effects of this drug. (C) 2020 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.