Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, Vol.533, No.4, 1155-1161, 2020
Trimebutine attenuates high mobility group box 1-receptor for advanced glycation end-products in flammatory signaling pathways
We previously identified papaverine as an inhibitor of receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) and showed its suppressive effect on high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1)-mediated responses to inflammation. Here, we found trimebutine to be a 3D pharmacophore mimetics of papaverine. Trimebutine was revealed to have more potent suppressive effects on HMGB1-induced production of pro inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in macrophage-like RAW264.7 cells and mouse bone marrow primarily differentiated macrophages than did papaverine. However, the inhibitory effect of trimebutine on the interaction of HMGB1 and RAGE was weaker than that of papaverine. Importantly, mechanism-of-action analyses revealed that trimebutine strongly inhibited the activation of RAGE downstream inflammatory signaling pathways, especially the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), which are mediator/effector kinases recruited to the intracellular domain of RAGE. Consequently, the activation of Jun amino terminal kinase, which is an important effector kinase for the up-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, was inhibited. Taken together, these results suggest that trimebutine may exert its suppressive effect on the HMGB1-RAGE inflammatory signal pathways by strongly blocking the recruitment of ERK1/2 to the intracellular tail domain of RAGE in addition to its weak inhibition of the extracellular interaction of HMGB1 with RAGE. Thus, trimebutine may provide a unique scaffold for the development of novel dual inhibitors of RAGE for inflammatory diseases. (C) 2020 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.