Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, Vol.534, 14-20, 2021
Mechanically stimulated osteocytes promote the proliferation and migration of breast cancer cells via a potential CXCL1/2 mechanism
Bone represents the most common site for breast cancer metastasis. Bone is a highly dynamic organ that is constantly adapting to its biophysical environment, orchestrated largely by the resident osteocyte network. Osteocytes subjected to physiologically relevant biophysical conditions may therefore represent a source of key factors mediating breast cancer cell metastasis to bone. Therefore, we investigated the potential proliferative and migratory capacity of soluble factors released by mechanically stimulated osteocytes on breast cancer cell behaviour. Interestingly the secretome of mechanically stimulated osteocytes enhanced both the proliferation and migration of cancer cells when compared to the secretome of statically cultured osteocytes, demonstrating that mechanical stimuli is an important physiological stimulus that should be considered when identifying potential targets. Using a cytokine array, we further identified a group of mechanically activated cytokines in the osteocyte secretome, which potentially drive breast cancer metastasis. In particular, CXCL1 and CXCL2 cytokines are highly expressed, mechanically regulated, and are known to interact with one another. Lastly, we demonstrate that these specific factors enhance breast cancer cell migration independently and in a synergistic manner, identifying potential osteocyte derived factors mediating breast cancer metastasis to bone. (C) 2020 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.