Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, Vol.542, 17-23, 2021
Nickel ions attenuate autophagy flux and induce transglutaminase 2 (TG2) mediated post-translational modification of SQSTM1/p62
Nickel, the most frequent contact allergy cause, is widely used for various metallic materials and medical devices. Autophagy is an intracellular protein degradation system and contributes to metal recycling. However, it is unclear the functions of nickel in autophagy. We here demonstrated that NiCl2 induced microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3)-II and LC3 puncta, markers of autophagosomes. Bafilomycin A1 (BafA1) treatment did not enhance LC3 puncta under NiCl2 stimulation, suggesting that NiCl2 did not induce autophagic flux. In addition, NiCl2 promotes the accumulation of SQSTM1/p62 and increased SQSTM1/p62 colocalization with lysosomal-associated membrane protein 1 (LAMP1). These data indicated that NiCl2 attenuates autophagic flux. Interestingly, NiCl2 induced the expression of the high-molecular-weight (MW) form of SQSTM1/p62. Inhibition of NiCl2-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) reduced the high-MW SQSTM1/p62. We also showed that NiCl2-induced ROS activate transglutaminase (TG) activity. We found that transglutaminase 2 (TG2) inhibition reduced high-MW SQSTM1/p62 and SQSTM1/p62 puncta under NiCl2 stimulation, indicating that TG2 regulates SQSTM1/ p62 protein homeostasis under NiCl2 stimulation. Our study demonstrated that nickel ion regulates autophagy flux and TG2 restricted nickel-dependent proteostasis. (C) 2021 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.