Atomization and Sprays, Vol.30, No.11, 779-797, 2020
DROP DYNAMICS IN HETEROGENEOUS SPRAY FLAMES FOR NANOPARTICLE SYNTHESIS
In flume spray pyrolysis (FSP), the understanding of the atomization and spray formation of the ouvial atomizer is a key step to control the mixing of reactants, and precursor release, as well as nanoparticle formation and growth mechanisms. The drop size and drop dynamics of fuel/precursor mixtures are relevant parameters to control the particle synthesis via gas-to-particle conversion for tailoring the nanoparticle. The investigation of the multiphase flow structures, especially in the dense spray region using sophisticated nonintrusive laser diagnostics, such as phase Doppler anemometry (PDA), enables a characterization of the burner with multiscale spatial and temporal resolution. In the present work, the evolution of drop size and velocity under varying iron nitrate (FNT) concentration of the precursor is investigated allowing for an estimation of precursor release and evaporation via detailed PDA measurements. The drop size distributions of pure ethanol, and ethanol + 2-ethylhexanoic acid, as well as for FNT-based spray flames, were studied in order to reveal the influence of metal precursors on the combustion. Drop size/velocity correlations were determined in order to resolve the size class averaged evolution of drop velocities. The evolution of the drop size distribution along the axial centerline revealed a variation of the evaporation rate in space and increased evaporation rates for FNT containing spray flames. Furthermore, bimodal drop size distributions were observed for heights above the burner larger than 40 mm in FNT precursor spray flames, indicating the occurrence of possible mu-explosions of drops, that have been reported in the literature for similar systems but only in single-droplet experiments so far.