Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, Vol.104, No.21, 9159-9177, 2020
Five novel and highly efficient endophytic fungi isolated from Huperzia serrata expressing huperzine A for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease
Huperzine A (Hup A) is an important drug for treating Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mainly extracted from theHuperzia serrata(Thunb.) Trevis. (Lycopodiaceae) (HS). Nevertheless, the content of Hup A inHSis very low of 0.007% with growing circle of 8 to 10 years, and the chemical synthesis of Hup A still has some insurmountable limitations in the industrialized production. So, the available resources of Hup A for clinical treatment of AD are scarce. The purpose of this work was to construct a biosynthesis platform based on the endophytic fungi fromHS. In this work, five endophytic fungiMucor racemosusNSH-D,Mucor fragilisNSY-1,Fusarium verticillioidesNSH-5,Fusarium oxysporumNSG-1, andTrichoderma harzianumNSW-V were firstly found and isolated from the Chinese folk medicineHS, which were identified according to their morphological characteristics and nuclear ribosomal DNA ITS sequences. The highest efficient fungus could effectively biosynthesize Hup A in a liquid culture of 319.8 +/- 0.17 mg/L which were 112 times higher than that of other reported conventional endophytic fungi. Moreover, these fungi with higher hereditary stability could possess the initial expressing ability of Hup A after 40 generations, and the expressed Hup A from these biosynthesis systems has prior physicochemical properties, a better inhibition activity of acetylcholinesterase and a lower cytotoxicity compared with the listed active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) of Hup A. These results provide promising alternative resources for producing Hup A at an industrial scale by biosynthesis, and it may also shed light on millions of AD patients.