Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, Vol.104, No.24, 10409-10436, 2020
Campylobacter sp.: Pathogenicity factors and prevention methods-new molecular targets for innovative antivirulence drugs?
Infections caused by bacterial species from the genus Campylobacter are one of the four main causes of strong diarrheal enteritis worldwide. Campylobacteriosis, a typical food-borne disease, can range from mild symptoms to fatal illness. About 550 million people worldwide suffer from campylobacteriosis and lethality is about 33 million p.a. This review summarizes the state of the current knowledge on Campylobacter with focus on its specific virulence factors. Using this knowledge, multifactorial prevention strategies can be implemented to reduce the prevalence of Campylobacter in the food chain. In particular, antiadhesive strategies with specific adhesion inhibitors seem to be a promising concept for reducing Campylobacter bacterial load in poultry production. Antivirulence compounds against bacterial adhesion to and/or invasion into the host cells can open new fields for innovative antibacterial agents. Influencing chemotaxis, biofilm formation, quorum sensing, secretion systems, or toxins by specific inhibitors can help to reduce virulence of the bacterium. In addition, the unusual glycosylation of the bacterium, being a prerequisite for effective phase variation and adaption to different hosts, is yet an unexplored target for combating Campylobacter sp. Plant extracts are widely used remedies in developing countries to combat infections with Campylobacter. Therefore, the present review summarizes the use of natural products against the bacterium in an attempt to stimulate innovative research concepts on the manifold still open questions behind Campylobacter towards improved treatment and sanitation of animal vectors, treatment of infected patients, and new strategies for prevention.