Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, Vol.105, No.4, 1345-1363, 2021
Bacterial valorization of pulp and paper industry process streams and waste
The pulp and paper industry is a major source of lignocellulose-containing streams. The components of lignocellulose material are lignin, hemicellulose, and cellulose that may be hydrolyzed into their smaller components and used as feedstocks for valorization efforts. Much of this material is contained in underutilized streams and waste products, such as black liquor, pulp and paper sludge, and wastewater. Bacterial fermentation strategies have suitable potential to upgrade lignocellulosic biomass contained in these streams to value-added chemicals. Bacterial conversion allows for a sustainable and economically feasible approach to valorizing these streams, which can bolster and expand applications of the pulp and paper industry. This review discusses the composition of pulp and paper streams, bacterial isolates from process streams that can be used for lignocellulose biotransformations, and technological approaches for improving valorization efforts.