Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Vol.191, No.1, 226-244, 2020
Allantoin, a Potential Metabolite That Promotes AMPK Phosphorylation and Suppresses Cholesterol Biosynthesis Via the Mevalonate Pathway and Bloch Pathway
This study aimed to evaluate the effect of probiotic administration on obese and ageing models. Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to high-fat diet (HFD) and injected with D-galactose to induce premature ageing. Upon 12 weeks of treatment, the faecal samples were collected and subjected to gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry (GC-MS) analysis for metabolite detection. The sparse partial least squares discriminant analysis (sPLS-DA) showed a distinct clustering pattern of metabolite profile in the aged and obese rats administered with probiotics Lactobacillus plantarum DR7 and L. reuteri 8513d, particularly with a significantly higher concentration of allantoin. Molecular docking simulation showed that allantoin promoted the phosphorylation (activation) of adenosine monophosphate-activated kinase (AMPK) by lowering the substrate free energy of binding (FEB) and induced the formation of an additional hydrogen bond between Val184 and the substrate AMP. Allantoin also suppressed cholesterol biosynthesis by either inducing enzyme inhibition, occupying or blocking the putative binding site to result in non-spontaneous substrate binding, as in the cases of 3-hydroxy-methylglutaryl-coA reductase (HMGCR), mevalonate kinase (MVK) and lanosterol demethylase (LDM) where positive FEBs were reported. These results demonstrated the potential of allantoin to alleviate age-related hypercholesterolaemia by upregulating AMPK and downregulating cholesterol biosynthesis via the mevalonate pathway and Bloch pathway.