Process Biochemistry, Vol.94, 39-50, 2020
Recent advances in Agaricus bisporus polysaccharides: Extraction, purification, physicochemical characterization and bioactivities
Agaricus bisporus (A. bisporus), known as a cultivated mushroom or button mushroom, is a very important edible and medicinal basidiomycete fungus. The numerous health benefits of A. bisporus may be related to their poly-saccharides, which have significant dietary value and bioactivity, including immunity stimulation and high antioxidant, anticancer, hepatoprotection, anti-inflammation and anti-obesity functions. In general, the extraction method of A. bisporus polysaccharides (ABPs) is relatively simple, and the yield from enzyme-assisted extraction is the highest among various extraction methods. The monosaccharide composition analysis revealed that ABPs mainly consist of glucose, galactose, fucose and xylose, which each have a backbone composed of (1 -> 6)- and (1 -> 4)-linked alpha-glucan or alternating (1 -> 4)- and (1 -> 6)-linked beta-glucan. The biological activity of ABPs may vary significantly depending on their source, composition, structural properties, and purity, and it is highly correlated with molecular weight (MW) and the monosaccharide components. Therefore, this review aims to introduce the extraction methods, chemical structure, and biological activity of ABPs which may provide a theoretical basis for the further development and utilization of polysaccharides and have important reference value for the future study of the relationship between structural features and biological activities.