Process Biochemistry, Vol.94, 15-29, 2020
Applications of red pigments from psychrophilic Rhodonellum psychrophilum GL8 in health, food and antimicrobial finishes on textiles
A psychrophilic bacterium (named GL8) producing red pigments was isolated from the high altitude Pangong Tso Lake located in Leh Ladakh, India. Based on 16S rDNA sequencing amplicon of 1370 bp, the psychrophilic bacterium was identified as Rhodonellum psychrophilum (R. psychrophilum GL8) and deposited in Gen Bank under accession no. MH031708.1.The red colored pigments from R. psychrophilum GL8 showed antimicrobial activity against E. coli, S. aureus, C. albicans, (MTCC 277, ATCC 90028) and S. cerevisiae (H1086) with minimum inhibitory concentrations from 31.25 mu g/mL to 500 mu g/mL. Red colored pigments also showed synergistic antifungal activity when combined with fluconazole and amphotericin B against C. albicans (MTCC 277 and ATCC 90028) and S. cerevisiae; vancomycin and erythromycin against E. coli and S. aureus. The red pigments showed antioxidant activity with an IC50 of 13.159 mu g/mL, LC-MS/MS analysis demonstrated that red pigment extracts contained a mixture of 2-methyl-3-butyl-prodigine, Prodigiosin, 2-methyl-3hexyl-prodigine, 3, 4-Didehydrorhodopsin, anhydrorhodovibrin, alloxanthin and Tetradecanoyl-hexadecanoyl compounds. Red pigment extracts were used to develop antimicrobial fabrics and did not show any cytotoxicity to U87MG human glioblastoma cell line, but showed a marginal growth inhibition to A172 human glioblastoma cell lines. In contrast, the red pigment extracts showed significant growth stimulation on L929 mouse fibroblast cell lines.