Langmuir, Vol.36, No.20, 5654-5664, 2020
Aldehyde-Mediated Protein-to-Surface Tethering via Controlled Diazonium Electrode Functionalization Using Protected Hydroxylamines
We report a diazonium electro-grafting method for the covalent modification of conducting surfaces with aldehyde-reactive hydroxylamine functionalities that facilitate the wiring of redox-active (bio)molecules to electrode surfaces. Hydroxylamine near-monolayer formation is achieved via a phthalimide-protection and hydrazine-deprotection strategy that overcomes the multilayer formation that typically complicates diazonium surface modification. This surface modification strategy is characterized using electrochemistry (electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring. Thus-modified glassy carbon, boron-doped diamond, and gold surfaces are all shown to ligate to small molecule aldehydes, yielding surface coverages of 150-170, 40, and 100 pmol cm(-2), respectively. Bioconjugation is demonstrated via the coupling of a dilute (50 mu M) solution of periodate-oxidized horseradish peroxidase enzyme to a functionalized gold surface under biocompatible conditions (H2O solvent, pH 4.5, 25 degrees C).