Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, Vol.574, 33-42, 2020
Chemically modified self-doped biocarbon via novel sulfonation assisted sacrificial template method for high performance flexible all solid-state supercapacitor
The development of lignin-based carbon electrodes for high-performance flexible, solid-state supercapacitors in next-generation soft and portable electronics, has received much attention. Herein, a self-doped multi-porous lignin-based biocarbon (SUMBC) has been prepared via a simple sulfonation assisted sacrificial template method for the effective formation of oxygenated C-S-C moieties in the carbon network. In this proposed method, the sulfonate moieties in lignin are responsible for the successful decoration of oxygen enriched C-S-C moieties as well as for creating the optimal multilevel porous architecture (ultra-micropores, micropores and mesopores) in the carbon matrix with a large surface area (3149 m(2) g(-1)). Because the sulfonate functionalities yield more sulfur species and induce further defects into carbon framework, in the activation process, these sulfur functionalities produce additional narrow micropores. Benefiting from the above unique feature, the supercapacitor (SC) with the SUMBC electrode delivers excellent capacitive behavior in both acidic (2 M H2SO4) and alkaline (6 M KOH) liquid electrolytes. More prominently, the all-solid state, symmetric supercapacitors assembled by SUMBC show outstanding capacitance of similar to 140 F g(-1) at 0.5 A g(-1) in two different devices and reveals high energy density (similar to 5.41 W h kg(-1) at 0.5 k W kg(-1) power density) and excellent stability. In addition, the solid-state supercapacitors manifest a remarkable flexibility at different bending angles. Hence, the present work provides a new strategy for the preparation of efficient biocarbons via a facile sulfonation assisted sacrificial template method; moreover, the high-performance all-solid supercapacitors based on sulfonated modified lignin has great potential in the field of portable and wearable energy storage devices. (C) 2020 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.