International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Vol.45, No.27, 14093-14107, 2020
A robust online energy management strategy for fuel cell/battery hybrid electric vehicles
Traditional optimization-based energy management strategies (EMSs) do not consider the uncertainty of driving cycle induced by the change of traffic conditions, this paper proposes a robust online EMS (ROEMS) for fuel cell hybrid electric vehicles (FCHEV) to handle the uncertain driving cycles. The energy consumption model of the FCHEV is built by considering the power loss of fuel cell, battery, electric motor, and brake. An offline linear programming-based method is proposed to produce the benchmark solution. The ROEMS instantaneously minimizes the equivalent power of fuel cell and battery, where an equivalent efficiency of battery is defined as the efficiency of hydrogen energy transforming to battery energy. To control the state of charge of battery, two control coefficients are introduced to adjust the power of battery in objective function. Another penalty coefficient is used to amend the power of fuel cell, which reduces the load change of fuel cell so as to slow the degradation of fuel cell. The simulation results indicate that ROEMS has good performance in both fuel economy and load change control of fuel cell. The most important advantage of ROEMS is its robustness and adaptivity, because it almost produces the optimal solution without changing the control parameters when driving cycles are changed. (C) 2020 Hydrogen Energy Publications LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.