International Journal of Energy Research, Vol.44, No.9, 7371-7385, 2020
Investigations on copper zinc tin sulfide thin films grown through nebulizer assisted spray pyrolysis technique
An attempt is made in this work to synthesize the nontoxic Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin film on FTO coated glass substrates through aerosol assisted nebulizer spray pyrolysis technique at different annealing temperatures for photovoltaic energy conversion. The deposited thin film is further used to form a heterojunction interface with a cadmium sulfide layer to fabricate a solar cell with Glass/FTO/CdS/CZTS/Ag superstrate structure to reveal its photovoltaic application. Various characterization techniques are utilized to study its inherent properties. X-ray diffraction (XRD) is employed to investigate the structural parameters such as crystallite size, microstrain and dislocation density which shows a preferential peak for (112) plane around 28.5 degrees confirming the formation of kesterite CZTS. Raman measurements establish the peak for CZTS at 336 cm(-1) and confirm the absence of parasitic secondary phases for an excitation wavelength of 488 nm. Scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscope used to examine the surface morphology and roughness of the films reveal a good surface morphology with a grain size of 555.9 nm and roughness of 123.7 nm for an annealing temperature of 350 degrees C. The bandgap of the deposited CZTS films is found to be around 1.5 eV. The I-V characteristics of CZTS seem to be better for the 350 degrees C annealed film. The performance of the optimized CZTS absorber layer is tested by forming a solar cell structure. The devised solar cell exhibited an open circuit voltage of 213 mV and a short circuit current density of 490 mu A cm(-2) with a conversion efficiency of 0.68% substantiating the usage of the prepared film as an absorber for photovoltaic conversion.