IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, Vol.65, No.7, 2992-3006, 2020
Observer Design for Nonlinear Networked Control Systems With Persistently Exciting Protocols
We study the design of state observers for nonlinear networked control systems (NCSs) affected by disturbances and measurement noise, via an emulation-like approach. That is, given an observer designed with a specific stability property in the absence of communication constraints, we implement it over a network, and we provide sufficient conditions on the latter to preserve the stability property of the observer. In particular, we provide a bound on the maximum allowable transmission interval (MATI) that guarantees an input-to-state stability (ISS) property for the corresponding estimation error system. The stability analysis is trajectory-based, utilizes small-gain arguments, and exploits a persistently exciting property of the scheduling protocols. This property is key in our analysis and allows us to obtain significantly larger MATI bounds in comparison to the ones found in the literature. Our results hold for a general class of NCSs; however, we show that these results are also applicable to NCSs implemented over a specific physical network called WirelessHART (WH). The latter is mainly characterized by its multihop structure, slotted communication cycles, and the possibility to simultaneously transmit over different frequencies. We show that our results can be further improved by taking into account the intrinsic structure of the WH-NCS model. That is, we explicitly exploit the model structure in our analysis to obtain an even tighter MATI bound that guarantees the same ISS property for the estimation error system. Finally, to illustrate our results, we present analysis and numerical simulations for a class of Lipschitz nonlinear systems and high-gain observers.