Biomacromolecules, Vol.21, No.6, 2043-2048, 2020
3D-Printing of Structure-Controlled Antigen Nanoparticles for Vaccine Delivery
Targeted delivery of antigens to immune cells using micro/nanocarriers may serve as a therapeutic application for vaccination. However, synthetic carriers have potential drawbacks including cytotoxicity, low encapsulation efficiency of antigen, and lack of a morphological design, which limit the translation of the delivery system to clinical use. Here, we report a carrier-free and three-dimensional (3D)-shape-designed antigen nanoparticle by multiphoton lithography-based 3D-printing. This simple, versatile 3D-printing approach provides freedom for the precise design of particle shapes with a nanoscale resolution. Importantly, shape-designed antigen nanoparticles with distinct aspect ratios show shape-dependent immune responses. The 3D-printing approach for the rational design of nanomaterials with increasing safety, complexity, and efficacy offers an emerging platform to develop vaccine delivery systems and mechanistic understanding.