Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, Vol.525, No.3, 773-779, 2020
Effects of the oral adsorbent AST-120 on fecal p-cresol and indole levels and on the gut microbiota composition
In chronic kidney disease, elevated levels of circulating uremic toxins are associated with a variety of symptoms and organ dysfunction. Indoxyl sulfate (IS) and p-cresyl sulfate (pCS) are microbiota-derived metabolites and representative uremic toxins. We have previously shown that the oral adsorbent AST120 profoundly reduced pCS compared to IS in adenine-induced renal failure in mice. However, the mechanisms of the different attenuation effects of AST-120 between IS and pCS are unclear. To clarify the difference of AST-120 on IS and pCS, we investigated the levels of fecal indole and p-cresol, the respective precursors of IS and pCS, and examined the influence on the gut microbiota. Although fecal indole was detected in all groups analyzed, fecal p-cresol was not detected in AST-120 treatment groups. In genus level, a total of 23 organisms were significantly changed by renal failure or AST-120 treatment. Especially, AST-120 reduced the abundance of Erysipelotrichaceae uncultured and Clostridium sensu stricto 1, which have a gene involved in p-cresol production. Our findings suggest that, in addition to the adsorption of the uremic toxin precursors, AST-120 affects the abundance of some gut microbiota in normal and renal failure conditions, thereby explaining the different attenuation effects on IS and pCS. (C) 2020 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.