Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, Vol.526, No.1, 147-153, 2020
SOX2 is a positive regulator of osteoclast differentiation
Elucidating the mechanism underlying osteoclast differentiation is important to improve our understanding of the pathophysiologies related to skeletal diseases and osteolytic metastasis in cancer. Sexdetermining region Y-box containing gene 2 (SOX2), a stemness marker, is known to affect osteoblast differentiation and cancer metastasis. However, its role in osteoclastogenesis has not been investigated to date. Here, we report that SOX2 protein and mRNA expression was upregulated during osteoclast differentiation. The overexpression or knockdown of SOX2 in osteoclast precursor cells enhanced or suppressed, respectively, receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast differentiation and migration, and nuclear factor of activated T-cell c1 (NFATc1) and factor-associated suicide ligand (FASL) expression. In addition, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation were regulated by SOX2 expression; both EGFR and ERK inhibitors abrogated the SOX2 overexpression-induced increase in osteoclast differentiation and NFATc1 expression under RANKL stimulation. Overall, these results suggest SOX2 as a positive regulatory factor during osteoclast differentiation partly through the EGFR and ERK signaling pathways, highlighting a new potential target for restoring abnormal osteoclast activation. (C) 2020 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.