Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, Vol.526, No.2, 472-478, 2020
Apolipoprotein D in Lepidoptera: Evolution and functional divergence
Apolipoprotein D (ApoD) plays important roles in response to injury, cell differentiation, lifespan extension, and increasing stress resistance. However, the evolutionary mechanism of ApoD in insects remains largely unelucidated. We conducted a comprehensive study of the molecular evolution and functional divergence of ApoD in insects. A type I functional divergence analysis revealed significant differences among insect ApoD homologs, suggesting that they underwent functional divergence. We demonstrated that lepidopteran insects have three genes that are close homologs to ApoD and show divergences in sequence, expression pattern, and protein-protein interaction. Furthermore, positive selection was detected in lepidopteran ApoD2, and positively selected sites were located around the pocket and loop domains, which might result in conformational changes and affect binding properties. Moreover, we showed that the three ApoDs in Bombyx mori were significantly regulated by environmental stress. Thus, this work illustrates the dialectical relationship between genetic diversity and functional conservation of ApoD and highlights its unique functions in the stress response of Lepidoptera. (C) 2020 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.